Posted 3 years ago on Nov. 28, 2012, 1:06 p.m. EST by DanielBarton
This content is user submitted and not an official statement
So i noticed a lot of disinformation about energy and scientific information. I have decided to post some scientific data starting with Nuclear power. I will continue this b posting one on solar and wind. I will also post some are cars space and robot manufacturing. This is just clear up what is know here with some actual facts and information that is very helpful. If you have any questions go and ask them.
Technology The issue
Nuclear energy represents the only fully commercialized greenhouse gas (GHG) emission-free baseload power. There are currently 104 active nuclear plants in 31 states. However, there has been no new nuclear construction in 30 years. In order to meet GHG reduction targets under discussion in federal energy legislation, nuclear power must be part of the solution.
How nuclear power is generated
- Enriched uranium pellets fill the metal fuel rods. These rods are placed in the reactor core.
The uranium pellets are made of billions of atoms. Each atom contains a nucleus that consists of protons and neutrons. During fission, when a uranium atom splits, it releases neutrons that hit and split other uranium atoms. When more neutrons are released than absorbed in other atoms, the fission becomes self-sustaining. This is called a chain reaction. The energy from the splitting of atoms produces tremendous heat.
Control rods stop and start fission. Control rods are made of materials that absorb neutrons. When they are inserted into the reactor core, they stop the chain reaction by absorbing the extra neutrons. When the control rods are removed, the extra neutrons resume splitting the atoms and the fission process begins again.
- Boric acid also controls fission. Boric acid, which is dissolved in the primary system water, also absorbs neutrons. The fission can also be controlled by changing the concentration of boron in the water.
- Concrete and steel protect from radiation. Radioactivity is released during the fission process. The containment building’s thick concrete and steel walls shield the public from radiation.
- Thousands of gallons of water absorb the heat from the fission. The primary system is pressurized so water flowing through the pipes will not boil. SECONDARY SYSTEM:
- Heat transferred from the primary system pipes to the secondary system pipes changes water into steam. Heat, not water or radioactivity, passes between these closed-loop systems.
- The steam in the secondary system turns the turbine fan blades. The turbine shafts are connected to the rotor that also turns inside the generator.
- Electromagnetism makes electricity. As the generator rotor turns, coils of wire spin in a magnetic field. This produces electricity in an outer set of coils. The electricity flows to a transformer. The transformer increases the voltage so the electricity can travel long distances.
- Intake pipes draw over a million gallons of water per minute into a condensing system. As the water enters the condenser, heat from the steam in the secondary system transfers to the third system. As the steam in the secondary system cools it changes to water that is pumped back to the steam generator. The clean condensing system water discharges through pipes. This safe, efficient process produces electricity 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
Nuclear Plant Employment
• 1,400 – 1,800 jobs during construction on average (with peak employment as high as 2,400 jobs at certain times)
• Approximately 700 permanent jobs when the plant is operating: These jobs pay 36% more than average salaries in the local area.
• The 700 permanent jobs at the nuclear plant create an equivalent number of additional jobs in the local area to provide the goods and services necessary to support the nuclear plant workforce (e.g., car dealers, dry cleaners, food service, etc.).
Nuclear Plant Economic Benefits
• The average nuclear plant generates approximately $430 million a year in total output for the local community, and nearly $40 million per year in total labor income. These figures include both direct and secondary effects. The direct effects include the plant’s spending for goods, services and labor. The secondary effects include the subsequent spending attributable to the plant and its employees, as plant expenditures filter through the local economy. Analysis shows that every dollar spent by the average nuclear plant results in the creation of $1.07 in the local community.
• The average nuclear plant generates approximately $20 million per year in state and local taxes. These tax payments support schools, roads and other state and local infrastructure.
• The average nuclear plant generates approximately $75 million per year in federal taxes.
New Nuclear Plant Construction
• A new nuclear plant represents an investment of $6-8 billion (depending on plant size), including interest during construction. • Construction of a new nuclear power plant will provide a substantial boost to suppliers of commodities like concrete and steel and manufacturers of hundreds of components. For example, a single new nuclear power plant requires approximately:
- 400,000 cubic yards of concrete—five times as much concrete as in the foundation and floor slabs of the 100-story Sears Tower in Chicago
- 66,000 tons of steel
- 44 miles of piping and 300 miles of electric wiring
- 130,000 electrical components.
Source: Nuclear Energy Institute