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Thread: A Dismal State of Readiness.
[-] 1 points by grapes (3252) 52 minutes ago

I raised a pair of hens as pets when I was a kid. One day coming back home from school, I found Sesame missing. Mom told me that she had given the hen away to a friend of ours. That was when I discovered "dual-use" and embarked on my very own "Quantitative Easing." "Be prepared!" became my endeavor.

Thread: i phone protest
[-] 1 points by MattHolck0 (1709) 3 hours ago

does my student loan go to the Chinese ?

Thread: A Dismal State of Readiness.
[-] 1 points by MattHolck0 (1709) 3 hours ago

the democrats come out of college fraternities just like the republicans

Thread: i phone protest
[-] 2 points by trashyharry (2642) from Waterville, NY 5 hours ago

Materialistic,selfish DOUCHEBAGS actually are incredibly thick on the ground here in the Indispensable Nation.I agree they are nauseating.I have known a few people from China.They tend not to take any of this personally,imo.For years I have been choking back the money I spend with Corporate Douchebag Companies.Their products suck.I got yelled at by a guy I work for occasionally just a couple of days ago for REFUSING to Eat Mcdonald's Food with him.What a Dickhead.These people have been molded and shaped by intensive propaganda and psyop style behavior modification,but you are right,there is NO excuse that will wash because it's not like their whole entire MINDS have been erased,or how could they be alive?

Thread: gold jinyu Oct. 20th gold price trend analysis
[-] 2 points by trashyharry (2642) from Waterville, NY 5 hours ago

Steep Ramp Tramp Traction:Djia 16,399.67 +19.26 +0.12% S&P 500 1,904.01 +17.25 +0.91% Nasdaq 4,316.07 +57.64 +1.35% Canadian Pornography:Tsx 14,337.77 +110.09 +0.77% False Teeth Lost on Roller Coaster:iBovespa 54,302.57 -1,431.22 -2.55% Mellow Harshed by Getting Caught Shoplifting Ftse 1006267.07 -43.22 -0.68% Sleeping in Dirty Clothes Cac 40 3991.24 -41.94 -1.04% Hit by Shit:Dax 8,717.76 -132.51 -1.50% Still Hopeless after All These Years:Nikkei 225 15,038 -74 -0.49% Life is But A Dream:Hang Seng 23,131.65 +61,39 +0.27% Shanghai 2,360.20 +1.25 +0.05% Rama Mantra Apparently Worked:Sensex 26,429.85 +321.32 +1.23% BustBoomBurn:Crude Oil WTI 82.85 +0.13 +0.17% Brent 85.82 +0.02 +0.02% Bloodied but Unbowed Gld 1.246.60 +1.90 +0.15% Slv 17.39 + 0.04 +0.24 Cpr 299.00 +0.20 +0.07% VXX:US 35.6000 -2.9800 -7.72% 11:03 est 10/20/14

Thread: i phone protest
[-] 2 points by elf3 (2669) 6 hours ago

The only thing to stop sharks from swimming is to take away the water...stop buying their products! It is disgusting American business men and women pretending not to see what is happening ...as long as the money is flowing. Even more disgusting are the people willing to fill that tank as long as they get the 5 second thrill of a new toy...and who does the Chinese government blame ...the little greedy american snots who don't care about the poor workers....they will be correct. And those slaves just might come to hate us....years of endless days stuffing ridiculous toys...sewing ridiculous fluff...building ridiculous toys. Toys they give up their lives for...I would hate us too. Sure a few of us might care...where are the rest? Afterall we can click on photos and anything at the click of a button we can't pretend we don't know. We are the ultimate bystanders we have surpassed it in fact and have become gawkers.

Thread: i phone protest
[-] 2 points by trashyharry (2642) from Waterville, NY 6 hours ago

I can only speak for myself,Elf.I personally detest APPL and the brutal exploitation of workers in all countries.Some economists are saying that the Gusher of Hot Money is playing out right now.The source of all that money-STOLEN-of course.From who? Chinese workers.It is thought that the value of the wages stolen from Chinese workers is around 100 trillion usd.At this stage,the soaking away of Chinese People out of rural areas is completed,and a strike at the last,final outlying Foxconn factory signals the Beginning of the End of The Great Chinese Wage Heist.This strike is happening NOW.A journey of 1000 miles starts with the first step.No people can be ruled by Force,Elf.Not the Chinese People,not American People-not any people.As the Chinese workers begin their struggle for more equitable wages,so will everyone else have to think about their own struggles against the New Feudalism and the Servant Economy that comes with it.Capitalists will seek to make a deal with Chinese workers just as they did with the workers in countries they have already processed.The Chinese workers might take that deal,as the workers in the US did after the Great Depression.Or they might not.American,Japanese and European workers might accept the New Feudalism-or they might not.They cannot rule by force,Elf.They have to strike a bargain with the 99%.If the 99% decides not to accept deals with Capitalists,they will cease to exist as the Owners of Everything.Like sharks,they must keep on moving forward in their essential activity or Die.With sharks.it's Swimming.With Capitalism it is profiteering through exploitation of resources and labor.The 1% do not perform any kind of worthwhile function.In fact,their activities are spreading more death,doom,suffering and grief every day,IMO.The sooner they are discredited and dispensed with,the better.

Thread: 'Redskins' and Black Codes
[-] 1 points by elf3 (2669) 7 hours ago

And also time for minority women to discover the feminist movement and to teach it to their sons ...minority disrespect for women is rampant!!!! I'm tired of seeing young girls dressed like hookers pressured to have sex far too young and being mistreated and thinking it is normal or getting stared down as you lick your lips like women are just sexual objects. This has happened to me in a business setting ...nothing happens because oh right protected skin color I have to deal with lip licking and staring from dirtbags who are eyeball fucking all the women they come into contact with. My husband is part native...and would think your post irrelevant to today. Things have changed very much ....better to focus on the problems of today. Oh and he doesn't lick his lips or eyeball fuck and glare at women because he was taught to be a gentleman despite growing up poor in the boondocks with blue collar working parents who struggled to make ends meet...better to focus on the problems happening today ...like rampant gang populations threatening innocent people with crime and violence because quite frankly where we come from doesn't matter only where we are going. Its good to remember history as long as we don't forget we aren't living in it. I think a lt of minorities don't want to end white privilege ( a lot of which was attained by working people living modest lives) you know the 98?...do minorities want more than upward mobility? Are they seeking minority privilege? Because...they sure like to divide this fight the fight for a system that provides this to us all...last I checked things aren't easyno matter what skin color or ethnicity you are. This country has no upward mobility...for anyone! Oh except those with federally backed student loans or full government funding....or the rich. Here I am stuck in the middle with you ...gangs to the left of me banksters to the right...here I am stuck in the middle with ...who?

Thread: A Dismal State of Readiness.
[-] 1 points by trashyharry (2642) from Waterville, NY 7 hours ago

Chickens.They are excellent animals.I was only able to raise one pullet this summer.The Hens were being disturbed while sitting.A skunk was entering their house and stealing their eggs at night.The skunk also disappeared a beautiful white baby Rooster.The one pullet I raised is an exquisite little creature named Zirp.We are very pleased with her.She is likely to be a layer of blue eggs.

Thread: 'Redskins' and Black Codes
[-] 1 points by elf3 (2669) 7 hours ago

Please...if you re black in this country college is free all you have to do is not fuck up and no debt for you...but instead go walk around " hustling" stealing identity and robbing your neighbors...phht almost every crime I hear about is committed by a minority. What do you say to that? Excuses running dry ....time for minorities to step up and denounce the defunct culture they breed in their "communities" (mainly the manchild thuggery) it is violent, sleazy and fucked up...that is why police target you and why all minorities get a bad rap and why police profile you. And why I lock my car door when you ghetto limp past it singing out loud rapping like a man child idiot. I'm not racist I voted for Obama but I call manchild jerry springer idiots out...grow the fuck up!!!! Having a particular skin color doesn't mean you are beyond reproach for judgement or for your criminal juvenile delinquent behavior..where there is bs...I call it wall street or minority...I ask what's wrong with your culture ( cause u sure love to criticize mine) which I actually don't mind because I can look at it objectively and say plenty...can you? I would love aid to go to school debt free...I imagine what possibilities that would bring and I resent my secretary tax dollars educating someone who graduates and then keeps committing crimes. That in itself is a crime. Do good be good. How hard is it not to harm other people? I ask the same questions of wallstreet ...war profiteers etc.

Thanx again-I have heard that song before-it was played on Radio Paradise.I really liked it.The production values are interesting.Years ago,when I first heard Coldplay,I thought the production style might be the beginning of a Stylistic Trend.Now it seems like that might be the case.I still am fascinated by the technical expertise of the members of Coldplay,and I am not surprised that they have come to be influential.I will keep an ear out for Mad Street Preachers also-talented,and I like the sound.Somehow Retro,but new...

Thread: i phone protest
[-] 1 points by elf3 (2669) 7 hours ago

That's what I thought not one reply ...so how many people here don't give a shit about Chinese slave labor because you're one of the assholes in line waiting for your I phone version slave labor markup 400 % version 3.0 phone. It's not about a movement for world justice its about justice and more stuff for you? figures...hope I haven't hitched myself to the wrong wagon.

Thread: On The Great Plains
[-] 2 points by trashyharry (2642) from Waterville, NY 7 hours ago

Howdy,Shadz-thank you for these links.Oftentimes I have already seen some of the linx you are kind enough to provide for me.Lately I have fallen way behind,so you are totally doing me a solid.I am currently involved in seriously studying graphs & charts related to commodities,equities and the Bond markets.This is something I never followed closely in the past,thinking I would never be able to understand that kind of data.To my surprise,I have discovered that it is a first rate source of information that is not hard to understand at all.We are really in a worse financial condition than ever around here,so we are now involved in selling just about everything we have for whatever we can get-it consumes so much time!

Thread: On The Great Plains
[-] 4 points by ShadzSixtySix (1137) 8 hours ago

''What ‘Democracy’ Really Means in U.S. and New York Times Jargon : Latin America Edition'', by Glenn Greenwald :

Like M.K.Gandhi said : ''An eye for an eye only makes the whole world blind'', however as someone else must also have said ... ''In the land of the blind, the one eyed man is King'' !!!

ad iudicium ...

Professional competency, expertise, skill & knowledge ?! More power to ''the small guy'' but a comprehensive healthcare system can not be provided without questioning 'the profit motive' ...

fiat lux ...

Bill Moyers ''Keeping Faith in Democracy'' {Video} :

'Dems-On-The-Hill' aren't really ''progressives'' - just marginally less reactionary & regressive.

ad iudicium ...

Thread: 11-04-14 Drown the 1%-Rats with the VOTES They Tried to Suppress
[-] 0 points by WSmith (1980) from Cornelius, OR 11 hours ago

Rain Baby RAIN!!

Thread: A Dismal State of Readiness.
[-] -1 points by DKAtoday (26862) from Coon Rapids, MN 11 hours ago

Try again. This country did not get to this point of disease decay failure - just in the last 6 years.

Thread: A Dismal State of Readiness.
[-] 1 points by BrentWeirick81 (1) 12 hours ago

The Democrats put a rookie in the WH and he won because of his ethnicity. What else do you need to know. Everybody on the street knew this four years ago but still voted for him because of his skin color.

Thread: 'Redskins' and Black Codes
[-] 5 points by LeoYo (5846) 15 hours ago

“Killing black men in America remains a closely held prerogative of white supremacy.”

Kajieme Powell, a 25 year-old mentally disabled man, was killed by St. Louis police days after the murder of Michael Brown. No charges were brought against the police officers who shot him multiple times. Michael Brown was profiled and executed as he walked in the street. A grand jury decision is expected in early November in which white men compose the majority of grand jury panelists. No one will be surprised if Officer Darren Wilson is never charged with Michael’s murder. And, no one will be surprised if the police officers who murdered Vonderrit Myers and Kajieme Powell are never charged with their murders. Killing black men in America remains a closely held prerogative of white supremacy.

...As flies to wanton boys are we to the gods,

They kill us for their sport.

—King Lear

William Shakespeare

Using the scientific modality of empiricism, the ability to predict outcomes based upon historic experiences, observations and reality, the murders of Brown, Powell, Myers, Martin, the hundreds and thousands before them we can extrapolate that if we do not act many more will surely die. It is utterly predictable. These deaths are not the result of hundreds of individual “bad apples” in police forces throughout the United States; these deaths are not accidents of nature, poor police training or officers fearful for their lives. Since Africans were brought to the US these deaths are part and parcel of the programming and desired outcome—the pacification, intimidation, population control and emotional scarring that is necessary to force African-Americans into becoming a pliant and subservient population that accepts minimum wages, apartheid-level education, job discrimination, premature deaths, exploitation of labor, emotional trauma, murder of our children by police, mass incarceration and sub-standard living conditions without resistance. The murders must be seen as a part of the desired outcome to disenfranchise African-Americans in order to have access to a cheap pool of labor and to discourage fighting for their humanity.

Yet every generation finds the courage and resilience to fight back. This is power of the resistance taking place in Ferguson. This is its legacy. We have arrived at this point in American history where we don’t need to be polite, or feign naivety about the intentional murder of black boys and men. The only question is: What is the end game for the African-American community?

As I wrote in my BAR essay: “Code Black Alert: the Execution of John Crawford,” from 1857 to 2014 the disposition of Black life has been circumscribed by the whims and capricious predilection of police, vigilantes and everyday white folks. A systemic and profound variable in the lives of African-Americans has been the pervasive and unrelenting storm of state-sponsored violence. Every 28 hours a black person dies at the hands of police, security guards or vigilantes. This represents an unbroken chain that links the 1857 Dred Scott decision to the present. Thus, one can hardly be surprised at the latest wave of violence directed against African-Americans.

“One can hardly be surprised at the latest wave of violence directed against African-Americans.”

If we are to emulate the human and sex traffickers that are elevated to the status of US founding fathers, what will it take for us to declare for ourselves:

But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. —Declaration of Independence, 1776

It took the Founders 126 years to reach enough is enough. Contrast this with the human and sex trafficking that was legal in the United States until so-called emancipation in 1865 – after which it has been repackaged through many iterations from Jim Crow to its current offering of a "felon" over a "slave" and preference for the word "thug" over "nigger" and the current historic period of mass incarceration.

Whatever else may be said of Africa-America, 395 years is—very—patient. Three times as patient as the Founding Fathers, to be exact. The Founding Fathers would have thrown off such government and provided new guards for their future security three times by now.

Understanding the history of policing in the US African community is important to developing an analysis and thus the ability to predict whether this system is salvageable or needs to be completely reimagined.

Part II of this series will trace modern policing among African-American to its 1703 ancestral roots in Deep South human trafficking and enslavement called “Slave Patrols.”

Code Black Alert: Boston:

Boston police officers disproportionately observed, interrogated, or searched black residents from 2007 to 2010, according to the preliminary results of a study commissioned by the department that were released Wednesday.

“This study shows evidence not just of racial disparity, but of racial bias,” said Matthew Segal, legal director of the ACLU of Massachusetts, which collaborated with the Boston Police Department on the genesis of the study, and on Wednesday released its own analysis of the data. “That is really alarming.”

Code Black Alert: New York:

Another day, another brutal police assault for the crime of standing on the street while Hispanic. Santiago Hernandez, 23, has accused a half-dozen NYPD cops of punching, beating and kicking him as they investigated a noise complaint - really?

Code Black Alert: New York:

The family of 17-year-old Marcel Hamer has released a cell-phone clip of a plainclothes New York City police officer hitting the teen while he lies in the gutter… Hamer’s family says he has suffered from memory loss, dizziness, and headaches ever since. See YouTube.

Code Black Alert: Georgia:

A grand jury in Georgia has declined to charge any of the cops in a SWAT team's botched drug raid who threw a stun grenade into the crib of 19-month-old Bounkham “Baby Bou Bou” Phonesavanh, thereby severely burning him, detaching his nose from his face, disfiguring his mouth and possibly causing him brain damage.

Thread: 'Redskins' and Black Codes
[-] 2 points by LeoYo (5846) 15 hours ago

Code Black Alert: Slave Patrols Alive and Well Across America, Part 1 - Killing Vonderrit Myers


       Monday, 20 October 2014 11:36     By Dr Marsha Coleman-Adebayo, Black Agenda Report | Op-Ed

“This latest yet unidentified St. Louis police executioner claimed that he followed Myers and his friends because he felt that the teens were acting suspiciously.”

Ten minutes earlier he had taken the turkey sandwich Berhe Beyet made him and cradled it away from his friend's playful snatching. Then stood breaking off a piece that he shared with another friend. By now, his mother has seen this tape of him standing in silhouette, and watched his peaceful chewing. On his way out the door he gives yet another friend a bite of what he did not know was his last supper, walking off into a night every parent in America cannot begin to imagine. A night every black person in America knows is coming and that the next one coming could be them—might as well be them—every time they imagine the high caliber bullet shattering his cheek bone, eye socket, aorta the medical examiner identified as the cause of death.

The ten minute clock begins running out of time as he steps outside the door and the security camera changes from color to black and white, where the silent footage is of body language, is of laughter and play and ease, making this confluence of uncertainty with the inevitable more cruel still.

Uncertainty, because we will never know what happened in the ten minutes after Vonderrit Myers Jr., 18, carried his turkey sandwich out of frame and into the last ten minutes of his life. Two wildly divergent narratives have emerged: One, told in very carefully crafted language with particulars to this incident sprinkled with assertions of the officer's feeling afraid for his life and his almost reckless waiting for the suspect to fire three rounds his way before dispatching what turned out to be a seasoned and precise lethal response. Myers has been portrayed as a troubled, repeat offender from the wrong side of the tracks. The other narrative, from eye witnesses, most of them black, some of them having themselves been previously fingerprinted, pointing their fingers at a rogue cop out to “put down” a young “suspicious”-looking black male, their voices minimized and cheapened by the state-sponsored press coming out of St. Louis. “The Ruger 9mm Myers is said to have fired at the stalking vigilante-cum-police-officer that turns into a Smith and Wesson .038 in the police department's next revision.”

There will be solemn intonations on the responsibility to withhold comment on the ongoing investigation beyond proclaiming that Myers was no stranger to the criminal justice system. After all this time we might even be tempted to believe these depictions but for the constantly changing details in the official police story: the hoody Vonderril was said to be wearing when he was attacked by the off duty police officer—said to have been pulled off during a scuffle with his assassin—that he isn't wearing ten minutes earlier when last seen in the security video; the bushes Voderrel is said to have jumped out of but are missing from the crime scene photos; the Ruger 9mm he is said to have fired at the stalking vigilante-cum-police-officer that turns into a Smith and Wesson .038 in the police department's next revision.

Or the overt omission of disclosure about the St. Louis police union rep, Jeff Roorda, who was quoted as saying, "I've known dozens and dozens of officers who have been in a situation to take a life, and they never take it lightly," while the story fails to mention that Roorda himself was fired for repeated incidents of misconduct including falsifying records while he was a cop. Does Roorda only take fraud lightly? No. Roorda, now a democratic state senator in Missouri, "was the primary author and sponsor of legislation this year in Missouri, which aimed to completely conceal the identity of police officers being charged in shootings," according to the DailyKos:

“All of that is to say that the state of Missouri, from the top to the bottom, has absolutely no problem concealing (or even outright concocting) the truth in a case when the career of a police officer is at risk.”

Just 12 miles from the scene of Michael Brown’s murder, one final insult to the dignity of Ferguson residents is that Jeff Roorda is behind the Shield of Hope charity that has raised $500,000 in funds for Darren Wilson, the officer who killed Michael Brown and Missouri Governor, Jay Nixon has personally campaigned for Roorda since Brown's slaying. Had Roorda gotten his way, no names of police involved in killing civilians would ever have been released, had the bill he authored and introduced not been defeated.

This latest yet unidentified St. Louis police executioner claimed that he followed Myers and his friends because he felt that the teens were acting suspiciously. This case mirrors the Trayvon Martin murder where the teen went to the store to purchase skittles and a soda and was confronted by self-appointed vigilante, George Zimmerman, who also thought Travyon was acting suspiciously. Zimmerman was found innocent of the murder of Travyon and his attorney Mark O’Mara was rewarded for his successful defense of white supremacy with a lucrative CNN contract as a legal consultant.

Thread: 'Redskins' and Black Codes
[-] 2 points by LeoYo (5846) 15 hours ago

You draw a close relationship to the US using strategies of empire against the indigenous population that became part of a pattern in how the United States became a colonial power independent of Europe. Can you give an example of how this played out with possessions such as the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico?

Yes, but it's essential to remember that the United States had been involved in overseas imperialism from the beginning. Traversing the continent "from sea to shining sea" was hardly a natural westward procession of covered wagons as portrayed in Western movies. The US invasion of Mexico was carried out by US marines, by sea, through Veracruz, and the early colonization of California initially progressed from the Pacific coast, reached from the Atlantic coast by way of Tierra del Fuego.

Between the Mississippi River and the Rockies lay a vast region controlled by indigenous nations that were neither conquered nor colonized by any European power, and although the United States managed to annex northern Mexico, large numbers of settlers could not reach the Northern California goldfields or the fertile Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest without army regiments accompanying them. Why then does the popular US historical narrative of a "natural" westward movement persist? The answer is that those who still hold to the narrative remain captives of the ideology of "manifest destiny," according to which the United States expanded across the continent to assume its preordained size and shape. This ideology normalizes the successive invasions and occupations of indigenous nations and Mexico as not being colonialist or imperialist, rather simply ordained progress. In this view, Mexico was just another Indian nation to be crushed.

Then there were the Barbary Wars. The opening lyric of the official hymn of the US Marine Corps, composed and adopted soon after the invasion of Mexico, "From the Halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli," refers in part to 1801-1805, when the Marines were dispatched by President Thomas Jefferson to invade the Berber Nation of North Africa. This was the "First Barbary War," the ostensible goal of which was to persuade Tripoli to release US sailors it held hostage and to end "pirate" attacks on US merchant ships. The "Second Barbary War," in 1815-1816, ended when pasha Yusuf Karamanli, ruler of Tripoli, agreed not to exact fees from US ships entering their territorial waters.

But, yes, the post-Civil War US Army of the West that carried out the genocidal counterinsurgencies against the peoples of the Northern Plains, the Intermountain West, and the Southwest moved abroad in the 1890s to the Caribbean, Central America and the Pacific, carrying out tried and tested counterinsurgency campaigns against those peoples who resisted. The prime target by 1898 were the Spanish colonies of the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico, where nationalist forces were fighting for independence from Spain, and the US intervened to drive Spain out, then turned on the insurgents, holding the Philippines as a colony for nearly a half century, dominated Cuba until the Cuban Revolution, and seized and still holds Puerto Rico as a colony (also Hawaii, Alaska, Guam, American Samoa, the Marshall Islands, and other Pacific islands).

In your conclusion, you state bluntly that "North America is a crime scene." Can you expand on that?

I take that concept of North America as a "crime scene" from Chickasaw scholar Jodi Byrd. One can imagine yellow tape surrounding the whole of the United States. I think the metaphor of a crime scene brings to consciousness the unfinished business of dealing with the past. It also raises the question of the violence and criminalization that permeates the society, the prison-industrial complex as well as the proliferation of firearms and attachment to them, and the continued US wars against much of the rest of the world, rhetorically and militarily.

On pages 64-65, you provide background to the barbaric origin of the term "redskins." In light of your historical account, how do you view the refusal of the Washington DC NFL franchise to change its name? Not only the Washington franchise, but also public schools and colleges across the country use "redskins" as their nickname. And not only does the Washington team balk at dropping the odious name, but also the fans continue to support its retention. I believe this willfulness is based on something more profound than ignorance of the historical significance of the term and is actually an affirmation of settler-colonialism, that a dead Indian is the symbol of the team that inhabits the US capitol.

The source of "redskins": As an incentive to recruit fighters, colonial authorities early on introduced a program of scalp hunting that became a permanent and long-lasting element of settler warfare against indigenous nations. During the Pequot War, Connecticut and Massachusetts colonial officials had offered bounties initially for the heads of murdered indigenous people and later for only their scalps, which were more portable in large numbers. But scalp hunting became routine only in the mid-1670s, following an incident on the northern frontier of the Massachusetts colony. The practice began in earnest in 1697, when settler Hannah Dustin, having murdered 10 of her Abenaki captors in a nighttime escape, presented their 10 scalps to the Massachusetts General Assembly and was rewarded with bounties for two men, two women and six children. Dustin soon became a folk hero among New England settlers.

Scalp hunting became a lucrative commercial practice. The settler authorities had hit upon a way to encourage settlers to take off on their own or with a few others to gather scalps, at random, for the reward money. "In the process," military historian John Grenier points out, "they established the large-scale privatization of war within American frontier communities."

Although the colonial government in time raised the bounty for adult male scalps, lowered that for adult females, and eliminated that for indigenous children under 10, the age and gender of victims were not easily distinguished by their scalps nor checked carefully. What is more, the scalp hunter could take the children captive and sell them into slavery. These practices erased any remaining distinction between indigenous combatants and noncombatants and introduced a market for indigenous slaves. Bounties for indigenous scalps were honored even in absence of war. Scalps and indigenous children became means of exchange, currency, and this development may even have created a black market. Scalp hunting was not only a profitable privatized enterprise but also a means to eradicate or subjugate the indigenous population of the Anglo-American Atlantic seaboard. The settlers gave a name to the mutilated and bloody corpses they left in the wake of scalp-hunts: redskins.

White House Petition: Change the Columbus Day Holiday to Indigenous Peoples' Day

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